*GUNS & AMMO 101*
By: Shooter

I have answered these questions a few times on the message board so I thought maybe it was time for GUNS & AMMO 101

.22 caliber rifles....
The Ruger 10-22 that you want to buy is chambered for the .22 Long Rifle, or .22LR. It will CHAMBER .22 SHORT and .22 LONG ammunition, BUT, it will not function properly. Those rounds do not have enough UMPH! to cycle the action properly. DO NOT let anyone sell you .22 MAGNUM ammo. It will NOT chamber in the gun....OR the magazines. Buy .22 LR ONLY! It can be in Standard Velocity or High Velocity form. Either is fine. Standard Velocity is better to hunt with. It is less destrtuctive to meat and usually more accurate. Hi-Velocity is sort of general purpose, USUALLY cheaper, and better for defensive use. When buying EITHER TYPE, get HOLLOWPOINTS.

....ALL shotguns can fire a variety of shot sizes. Shotgun barrels are CHOKED, or constricted at the end. This CHOKE determines whether the pattern or spread of the shot is wide or tight. Barrels come in the following chokes:

* CYL-Cylinder bore. NO choke...good for shooting slugs, buckshot or hunting fast flushing birds like quail.
* IMP CYL-Improved Cylinder. Gives slightly tighter patterns than above, thus slightly increasing the effective range of the shot.
* MOD-Modified. Good all-around choke. Gives farther range than earlier two chokes, but makes up close, fast moving targets slightly more difficult to hit.
* F-Full. Very tight choke for producing tight patterns. Very good for duck, goose, or turkey hunting.

*NOTE..with the advent of removable choke tubes, ANY shotgun can be made to accept interchangable choke TUBES, thereby creating essentially a whole arsenal of different shotguns with only ONE gun and ONE barrel. By simply changing choke tubes, you can make the shotgun MISSION SPECIFIC.

Shotgun shells come in Standard or Field loads. These are light-recoiling loads designed for target and small game hunting. They ALSO come in Maximum or Magnum loads. These have MORE powder and MORE shot. This gives them MORE power and MORE range. They are used for LARGER targets, such as turkeys, ducks, geese, deer, people, etc.

Birdshot is the smallest type, and it is used for small game hunting and shooting skeet. The sizes range from #9 to BB and the various steel shot sizes for use on waterfowl. Here is the tricky part....the LARGER the #, the smaller the size of the shot. Effective range is USUALLY no more than 40 yards....depending on choke.

Buckshot is NORMALLY used for deer hunting, although a large percentage of Law Enforcement agencies and the military use it for anti-personnel use. #4 buckshot is the smallest size, and O is the largest. #3 is recommended for the 20 guage, and either #4 or OO is recommended for the 12 guage. Effective range is USUALLY 25-35 yards.

SLUGS...Slugs are the name given to a single, large lead projectile fired from a shotgun. They can be made solely from lead or with Remington, may be made from solid copper. They are meant to be used against LARGE game, 2-legged targets and autos. They essentially turn your shotgun into a short-ranged, but VERY POWERFUL rifle. I can hit 5-gallon buckets at 200 yards with my 12 guage Beretta and slugs. Effective range is USUALLY out to around 75 yards, but I practice...A LOT!

I hope this has been helpful. If it is still as clear as mud, let me know on the message board!

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